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The administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen from by the German Chancellery which was in renamed Schleswig-Holstein Chancellery.
The German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification with a new Prussian -dominated Germany.
This development was paralleled by an equally strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and Northern Schleswig.
This movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig.
The ensuing conflict is sometimes called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. In , King Frederick VII of Denmark declared that he would grant Denmark a liberal constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to ensure that this constitution would give rights to all Danes, i.
Furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig the dominant language in almost a quarter of Schleswig had changed from Danish to German since the beginning of the 19th century.
Representatives of German-minded Schleswig-Holsteiners demanded that Schleswig and Holstein be unified and allowed its own constitution and that Schleswig join Holstein as a member of the German Confederation.
These demands were rejected by the Danish government in , and the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelled.
In , conflict broke out again when Frederick VII died without legitimate issue. The transmission of the duchy of Holstein to the head of the German-oriented branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenborg , was more controversial.
The separation of the two duchies was challenged by the Augustenborg heir, who claimed, as in , to be rightful heir of both Schleswig and Holstein.
The promulgation of a common constitution for Denmark and Schleswig in November prompted Otto von Bismarck to intervene and Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark.
This was the Second War of Schleswig , which ended in Danish defeat. Contrary to the hopes of German Schleswig-Holsteiners, the area did not gain its independence, but was annexed as a province of Prussia in Also following the Austro-Prussian War in , section five of the Peace of Prague stipulated that the people of Northern Schleswig would be consulted in a referendum on whether to remain under Prussian rule or return to Danish rule.
This condition, however, was never fulfilled by Prussia. During the decades of Prussian rule within the German Empire , authorities attempted a Germanisation policy in the northern part of Schleswig, which remained predominantly Danish.
The period also meant increased industrialisation of Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Kiel and Flensburg as important Imperial German Navy locations.
The northernmost part and west coast of the province saw a wave of emigration to America, while some Danes of North Schleswig emigrated to Denmark.
Following the defeat of Germany in World War I , the Allied powers arranged a plebiscite in northern and central Schleswig.
The plebiscite was conducted under the auspices of an international commission which designated two voting zones to cover the northern and south-central parts of Schleswig.
Steps were taken to also create a third zone covering a southern area, but zone III was cancelled again and never voted, as the Danish government asked the commission not to expand the plebiscite to this area.
Only minor areas on the island of Föhr showed a Danish majority, and the rest of the Danish vote was primarily in the town of Flensburg.
On 15 June , Northern Schleswig officially returned to Danish rule. To compensate Prussia for these losses and partly because Hitler had a personal dislike for Lübeck  , the year-long independence of the Hansestadt Lübeck came to an end, and almost all its territory was incorporated into Schleswig-Holstein.
On 23 August , the military government abolished the province and reconstituted it as a separate Land.
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The towns and cities in Schleswig-Holstein ooze a certain maritime charm and are home to historical buildings, unlimited shopping opportunities and impressive cultural highlights.
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Holstein was completely German, while the situation in Schleswig was complex. It was linguistically mixed between German, Danish and North Frisian.
The population was predominantly of Danish ethnicity, but many of them had switched to the German language since the 17th century.
German culture dominated in clergy and nobility, whereas Danish had a lower social status. For centuries, when the rule of the King was absolute, these conditions had created few tensions.
When ideas of democracy spread and national currents emerged from c. The medieval Treaty of Ribe had proclaimed that Schleswig and Holstein were indivisible, albeit in another context.
As the events of threatened to politically divide the two duchies, Prussia was handed a good pretext to engage in war with Denmark to seize Schleswig-Holstein for itself, both by pleasing nationalists in "liberating" Germans from Danish rule, and by implementing the law of the German Confederation.
On July 29, , In response to the renewed Danish claim to Schleswig as integral Danish territory, the German Federal Assembly instructed by Bismarck threatened German federal intervention.
Even this concession violated the principle of the indissoluble union of the duchies, but the German Federal Assembly, fully occupied at home, determined to refrain from further action till the Danish parliament should make another effort to pass a law or budget affecting the whole kingdom without consulting the estates of the duchies.
In July this happened, and in the spring of the estates were once more at open odds with the Danish government. The German Federal Assembly now prepared for armed intervention; but it was in no condition to carry out its threats, and Denmark decided, on the advice of Great Britain, to ignore it and open negotiations directly with Prussia and Austria as independent powers.
These demanded the restoration of the union between the duchies, a question beyond the competence of the Confederation.
Denmark replied with a refusal to recognise the right of any foreign power to interfere in her relations with Schleswig; to which Austria, anxious to conciliate the smaller German princes, responded with a vigorous protest against Danish infringements of the compact of Lord John Russell now intervened, on behalf of Great Britain, with a proposal for a settlement of the whole question on the basis of the independence of the duchies under the Danish crown, with a decennial budget for common expenses to be agreed on by the four assemblies, and a supreme council of state consisting in relative proportion of Danes and Germans.
This was accepted by Russia and by the German great powers, and Denmark found herself isolated in Europe. The international situation, however, favoured a bold attitude, and she met the representations of the powers with a flat defiance.
The retention of Schleswig as an integral part of the monarchy was to Denmark a matter of life and death; the German Confederation had made the terms of the protocol of , defining the intimate relations between the duchies, the excuse for unwarrantable interference in the internal affairs of the Denmark.
On March 30, , as a result of this, a royal compact's proclamation was published at Copenhagen repudiating the compacts of , and, by defining the separate position of Holstein in the Danish monarchy, negativing once for all the German claims upon Schleswig.
As the heirless king Frederick VII grew older, Denmark's successive National-Liberal cabinets became increasingly focused on maintaining control of Schleswig following the king's future death.
Both duchies were ruled by the kings of Denmark and shared a long mutual history, but their association with Denmark was extremely complex.
Holstein was a member of the German Confederation. Denmark, and Schleswig as it was a Danish fief , were outside the German Confederation.
German nationalists claimed that the succession laws of the two duchies were different from the similar law in Denmark. Danes, however, claimed that this only applied to Holstein, but that Schleswig was subject to the Danish law of succession.
A further complication was a much-cited reference in the Treaty of Ribe stipulating that Schleswig and Holstein should "be together and forever unseparated".
As counter-evidence, and in favour of the Danish view, rulings of a Danish clerical court and a German Emperor, of and respectively, were produced.
According to the line of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would now pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg the future King Christian IX , the crown of Holstein was considered to be more problematic.
This decision was challenged by a rival pro-German branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenburg Danish: Augustenborg who demanded, like in , the crowns of both Schleswig and Holstein.
This happened at a particularly critical time as work on a new constitution for the joint affairs of Denmark and Schleswig had just been completed with the draft awaiting his signature.
In the Duchy of Lauenburg the personal union with Denmark ended and her estates elected a new dynasty in The new so-called November Constitution would not annex Schleswig to Denmark directly, but instead create a joint parliament with the medieval title Rigsraadet to govern the joint affairs of both Denmark and Schleswig.
Both entities would maintain their individual parliaments as well. A similar initiative, but also including Holstein, had been attempted in , but proved a failure because of the opposition of the people in Schleswig and their support in German states.
Royal authority shall be inherited. The law of succession is specified in the law of succession of July 31, , applying for the entire Danish monarchy.
Denmark's new king, Christian IX , was in a position of extraordinary difficulty. The first sovereign act he was called upon to perform was to sign the new constitution.
To sign was to violate the terms of the London Protocol which would probably lead to war. To refuse to sign was to place himself in antagonism to the united sentiment of his Danish subjects, which was the basis of his reign.
He chose what seemed the lesser of two evils, and on November 18 signed the constitution. The news was seen as a violation of the London Protocol , which prohibited such a change in the status quo.
It was received in German states with manifestations of excitement and anger. Frederick, duke of Augustenburg, son of the prince who in had renounced the succession to the duchies, now claimed his rights on the ground that he had had no share in the renunciation.
In Holstein an agitation in his favour had begun from the first, and this was extended to Schleswig when the terms of the new Danish constitution became known.
His claim was enthusiastically supported by the German princes and people, and in spite of the negative attitude of Austria and Prussia the federal assembly at the initiative of Otto von Bismarck decided to occupy Holstein pending the settlement of the decree of succession.
On December 24, , Saxon and Hanoverian troops marched into the German duchy of Holstein in the name of the German Confederation , and supported by their presence and by the loyalty of the Holsteiners the duke of Augustenburg assumed the government under the style of Duke Frederick VIII.
It was clear to Bismarck that Austria and Prussia, as parties to the London Protocol of , must and uphold the succession as fixed by it, and that any action they might take in consequence of the violation of that compact by Denmark must be so correct as to deprive Europe of all excuse for interference.
The publication of the new constitution by Christian IX was in itself sufficient to justify them. As to the ultimate outcome of their effective intervention, that could be left to the future to decide.
Austria had no clear views. King William wavered between his Prussian feeling and a sentimental sympathy with the duke of Augustenburg. Bismarck alone knew exactly what he wanted, and how to attain it.
After Christian IX of Denmark merged Schleswig not Holstein into Denmark in following his accession to the Danish throne that year, Bismarck's diplomatic abilities finally convinced Austria to participate in the war, with the assent of the other European large powers and under the auspices of the German Confederation.
The protests of Great Britain and Russia against the action of the German federal assembly, together with the proposal of Count Beust , on behalf of Saxony, that Bavaria should bring forward in that assembly a formal motion for the recognition of Duke Frederick's claims, helped Bismarck to persuade Austria that immediate action must be taken.
On December 28 a motion was introduced in the federal assembly by Austria and Prussia, calling on the Confederation to occupy Schleswig as a pledge for the observance by Denmark of the compacts of This implied the recognition of the rights of Christian IX, and was indignantly rejected; whereupon the federal assembly was informed that the Austrian and Prussian governments would act in the matter as independent European powers.
On January 16, , the agreement between them was signed. An article drafted by Austria, intended to safeguard the settlement of , was replaced at Bismarck's instance by another which stated that the two powers would decide only in concert on the relations of the duchies, and that they would in no case determine the question of the succession save by mutual consent; and Bismarck issued an ultimatum to Denmark demanding that the November Constitution should be abolished within 48 hours.
This was rejected by the Danish government. The Austrian and Prussian forces crossed the Eider into Schleswig on February 1, , and war was inevitable.
An invasion of Denmark itself had not been part of the original programme of the allies; but on February 18 some Prussian hussars , in the excitement of a cavalry skirmish, crossed the frontier and occupied the village of Kolding.
Bismarck determined to use this circumstance to revise the whole situation. He urged upon the Austrians the necessity for a strong policy, so as to settle once for all not only the question of the duchies but the wider question of the German Confederation; and Austria reluctantly consented to press the war.
On March 11 a fresh agreement was signed between the powers, under which the compacts of were declared to be no longer valid, and the position of the duchies within the Danish monarchy as a whole was to be made the subject of a friendly understanding.
Meanwhile, however, Lord John Russell on behalf of Great Britain, supported by Russia, France and Sweden, had intervened with a proposal that the whole question should once more be submitted to a European conference.
The German powers agreed on condition that the compacts of London Protocol should not be taken as a basis, and that the duchies should be bound to Denmark by a personal tie only.
But the proceedings of the conference, which opened at London on April 25, only revealed the inextricable tangle of the issues involved.
Beust, on behalf of the Confederation, demanded the recognition of the Augustenburg claimant; Austria leaned to a settlement on the lines of that of ; Prussia, it was increasingly clear, aimed at the acquisition of the duchies.
The first step towards the realization of this latter ambition was to secure the recognition of the absolute independence of the duchies, and this Austria could only oppose at the risk of forfeiting her whole influence among the German states.
The two powers, then, agreed to demand the complete political independence of the duchies bound together by common institutions.
The next move was uncertain. As to the question of annexation Prussia would leave that open, but made it clear that any settlement must involve the complete military subordination of Schleswig-Holstein to herself.
This alarmed Austria, which had no wish to see a further extension of Prussia's already overgrown power, and she began to champion the claims of the duke of Augustenburg.
This contingency, however, Bismarck had foreseen and himself offered to support the claims of the duke at the conference if he would undertake to subordinate himself in all naval and military matters to Prussia, surrender Kiel for the purposes of a Prussian war-harbour, give Prussia the control of the projected Kiel Canal , and enter the Prussian Customs Union.
On this basis, with Austria's support, the whole matter might have been arranged without—as Beust pointed out Mem. Austria, the other leading state of the German Confederation, was reluctant to engage in a "war of liberation" because of its own problems with various nationalities.
After Christian IX of Denmark merged Schleswig into Denmark in following his accession to the Danish throne that year, Bismarck 's diplomatic abilities finally convinced Austria to participate in the war, with the assent of the other European large powers and under the auspices of the German Confederation.
On June 25 the London conference broke up without having arrived at any conclusion. On the 24th, in view of the end of the truce, Austria and Prussia had arrived at a new agreement, the object of the war being now declared to be the complete separation of the duchies from Denmark.
As the result of the short campaign that followed, the preliminaries of a treaty of peace were signed on August 1, the king of Denmark renouncing all his rights in the duchies in favour of the emperor of Austria and the king of Prussia.
The definitive treaty was signed at Vienna on October 30, By Article XIX, a period of six years was allowed during which the inhabitants of the duchies might opt for Danish nationality and transfer themselves and their goods to Denmark; and the right of indigency was guaranteed to all, whether in the kingdom or the duchies, who enjoyed it at the time of the exchange of ratifications of the treaty.
This Second War of Schleswig of was presented by invaders to be an implementation of the law of the German Confederation Bundesexekution. Denmark capitulated and Prussia and Austria took over the administration of Schleswig and Holstein respectively under the Gastein Convention of August 14, Already in the Prussian occupying authorities had deposed Bishop Sechmann Boesen.
It did not take long for disagreements between Prussia and Austria over both the administration and the future of the duchies to surface.